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Jute Terminology

A PRODUCTS Standard products are commercially termed as Hessian, Sacking, Carpet Backing Cloth (CBC), Yarn/Twine, Canvas/Tarpaulin, JDP / Decoratives, Webbing, JGT/Soil Saver, Technical Textiles etc.
B MARKET Domestic (India) & Foreign Countries like USA, Belgium, UK, Turkey, Egipt, Japan, Soudi Arab, Spain, Germany, Italy, Africa, Australia, Latin America, Middle East & other region of the world
C STAGES OF OPERATION Entire processes are broadly classified as Mill Side (Bale opening to Yarn Spinning) and Factory Side (Winding to Packing).
D BALE OPENING Grade-wise selection of Jute/Mesta and followed by MORAH preparation & segregation of down grade/ defective jute/mesta by manual operation.
E SOFTENING Objective Mechanical Drafting, Bending, Twisting and Emulsion Spraying on Raw jute / mesta.
    Machinery SOFTENER or SPREADER Followed by MATURING (Morah piling of loose jute delivered from Softener and Rolled Jute delivered from Spreader) for specific duration (period of maturing) depending on grade of jute / mesta
F CARDING Objective Splitting of Meshy structure of jute/mesta reeds into individual fibres..
    Machinery Attachment (Optional) BREAKER & FINISHER Delivery in rolls HOPPER FEEDER is used for feeding of cut jute at Breaker for regularity at feed (input) & delivery (output). The output is known as Sliver.Draw-heads are attached at delivery of Finisher Cards for doubling & initial drafting Other Carding Machines namely TEASER & INTER are optional to process coarse jute and mixing of coarse jute / mesta with process wastages line swiping.Hard Waste Card is used to consume process wastages
G PREPARING / DRAWING Objective Drafting, Doubling, Straightening, Blending of fibres
    Machinery Drawing Frames known as Open Screw-Gill Type; Intersecting Screw-Gill Type ; Mack -High Push Bar Type and Rotary-Gill Type (1ST; 2ND & 3RD / finisher). Three Passages of Drawing employed for processing of Fine & Medium Counts of Yarns & Two Passages (1st. Mack-high & Finisher Screw Gill) employed for processing of Course / Heavy Counts of Yarns.
H SPINNING Objective Drafting and imparting twist according to count of yarn and winding on into bobbins.
    Machinery Spinning Frame – 4¼" Pitch Slip Drafting with two Legged & Tubular Flyers for Fine / Medium Count Yarns ; 4½" Pitch Apron – Drafting with Tubular Flyers for Fine Count Yarns & 5½" Pitch Vee-Roller Drafting with two- Legged / Tubular Flyers for Coarse Count Yarns normally used as Sacking Weft and 4 ¾" pitch Slip Drafting with Tubular Flyers for medium to coarse count of yarns. Ring Spinning Technology also employed for Yarn spinning.
I TWISTING Objective Manufacturing of multi stand yarns known as twine( plied yarn )
    Machinery 5½" Pitch Flyer, Ring (of various diameter of ring lift), Two - for- One (TFO) Twisters and Rope making machine.
J WINDING Objective Converting yarn into spool / cone suitable for beaming(warp) and cop for using as weft in the shuttle of loom.
    Machinery Traverse Bar (TB) & Scroll / Grooved Drum type winding frames for Warp Yarns and Cop Winding frames (Conventional vertical type / automatic horizontal type) for winding of Weft Yarns. Precision Winding frames for compact / bigger package to accommodate more length of yarn, suitable for export. Assembly Winding and Cone winding to use in TFO Twister.
K PRE-BEAMING Objective Initial warp beam to be used in final beaming / sizing where number of threads / yarn are very high (Optional).
    Machinery Namely, Indequip ; Hibbert ; Lisona Holt etc
L BEAMING & SIZING Objective To accommodate large number of individual yarns required as per width of the fabric and coating of warp yarns with size paste to prevent warp breakage during weaving and better weaveability.
    Machinery Conventional Beaming for Hessian and Sacking and malti- cylinder sizing for other products.
M WEAVING Objective Interlacement of warp and weft to form fabric.
    Machinery Conventional flat bed shuttle loom for hessian and sacking of various reed – space. Automatic shuttleless rapier loom, Onemack (S4A) Loom for sacking. Tape loom, Webbing, Dobby/Jacquard attached loom etc. Loom for Open mesh net/scrim cloths. Knitted Fabric. Breading for circular/double layer fabric directly made from yarn in one go.
N DAMPING Objective For unwinding of ex-loom cloth with spraying of water (optional)
    Machinery Damping machine with water spraying done by nozzle; brush and spray types for smooth calendaring and subsequent finishing operation. Calendaring helps gaining in length of fabric.
O CALENDERING/INSPECTION Objective Pressing of cloth for removal of creases to improve fabric cover and making the fabric surface smoother and lustrous. Inspection of fabric at delivery of calender is done to identify defects in fabric during weaving followed by repairing / rectification.
    Machinery Calendaring machine and Rolling machine.
P LAPPING/ ROLLING & MEASURING INSPECTION Objective Folding / compact rolling required for packing of hessian and carpet backing cloth.
    Machinery Lapping machine and Rolling machine.
Q CUTTING Objective Sacking cloth after calendaring cut into pieces of required sizes to manufacture bags / sheets.
    Machinery Rotary ; Guillotine, lap cutting etc. and also by hand cutting
R SEWING Objective Sewn of the open ends (mouth and side) of the small pieces of fabric.
    Machinery Hemming operation to sewn mouth of the bags and Herackle operation to sewn sides of the bags and Safety sewing (optional) at the inner edge of the Herackle sewing to prevent failure of side sewing.
S BUNDLING Objective Counting of bags @ 25 nos. in each bundle to ease of packing. Done manually
T BAILING Objective Packing of hessian cloth / sacking bags for storing and dispatching.
    Machinery Water /oil hydraulic press & pump.
U PROCESSING/FINISHING Objective Specialised Processes imparted to manufacture Decorative Fabrics,Jute Diversified products (JDP) & Jute Geotextiles (JGT) and otherTechnical Textiles.
    Machinery Gigger, Bleaching, Dyeing, Padding Mangle, Dryer/Blower, Soaper Singeing, Printing, Embroidery, Lamination Rot–proofing and many more,
V NON-WOVEN Objective A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibres, or both, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means and combinations thereof. Otherway, fabric made by unconventional method of fabric preparation. Products manufactured through non-woven technology under technical textiles category are used for various end-use applications.
    Machinery Needle punched and adhesive bonding processed in Non-Woven Machinery

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